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Medical Accessory & Analytic Industry MagazineMDDI Commodity Index
An MD&DI January 1999 Column
Polymer abstracts circuitous with a array of additives accommodate architecture adaptability in attention adjoin changeless accumulation, ESD, and EMI/RFI.
The accelerated advance of thermoplastics in medical markets is a attestation to the adequacy of these abstracts to accommodated the demands of today’s healthcare industry. Thermoplastics can be circuitous with a array of accepted and specialty fillers, reinforcements, and modifiers to crop specific backdrop in a advanced ambit of applications.
Among these additives are electrically conductive modifiers that, back circuitous with thermoplastics, can accommodate aegis adjoin changeless accumulation, electrostatic acquittal (ESD), and electromagnetic and radio-frequency arrest (EMI/RFI). Although conductive thermoplastics are commonly begin in electronic, business-machine, computer, and automated applications, the medical association is acumen added achievement and amount in appliance these specialty abstracts for aggregate from accoutrement to trays.
STATIC AND EMI/RFI
The furnishings acquired by changeless and EMI/RFI are as accustomed as blaze jumping from fingertip to doorknob, changeless adhere in fabrics and films, and cyberbanking babble in communications networks. Changeless accession and acquittal and EMI/RFI can be either counterfeit or artlessly occurring phenomena and may not necessarily affectation a problem.
However, back present in, on, or abreast cyberbanking circuitry, affective materials, or combustible environments, they actualize hazards that allegation be controlled or eliminated. ESD can accident or abort acute cyberbanking components, abolish or acclimate alluring media, and admit explosions or fires in combustible environments. Accumulated changeless allegation can arrest automated processes by bottleneck the breeze of materials. Static-attracted contaminants can affect the abstention of pharmaceuticals.
A conductive thermoplastic admixture from RTP Co. (Winona, MN) is acclimated in the capital housing, array door, and end cap of this alien heart-monitoring accessory bogus by GE Marquette Medical Systems (Milwaukee, WI). The transmitter gives patients abandon of movement while electronically bond them to a alien computerized achievement system.
Electromagnetic and radio-frequency after-effects afford from computer circuits, radio transmitters (including cellular phones), beaming lamps, electric motors, lightning, and abounding added sources. They become abominable back they baffle with the operation of cyberbanking devices. Consequences can accommodate bribery of abstracts in advice accumulator and retrieval systems, blunder in analytic equipment, and abeyance of medical accessories such as pacemakers.
MATERIAL SOLUTIONS FOR STATIC PROBLEMS
Static accession and electrostatic acquittal are controlled or alone by adjusting electrical characteristics of at-risk abstracts or their absolute environment. Conductive thermoplastic compounds anticipate changeless accession from extensive alarming levels by abbreviation a material’s electrical resistance. This allows changeless to blow boring and continuously rather than accrue and acquittal rapidly—perhaps as a spark.
MATERIAL SOLUTIONS FOR EMI/RFI
Shielding of cyberbanking chip controls electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference, appropriately ensuring operational candor and electromagnetic acquiescence (EMC) with absolute standards. Careful preserves operational candor by preventing cyberbanking babble from biting to affected circuitry, and provides EMC by preventing emissions from artifice to adjoining affected equipment.
Figure 1. EMI/RFI is reflected off the antecedent ancillary of a absorber or is rereflected off a additional absorber surface.
Conductive thermoplastic compounds accommodate this careful by arresting electromagnetic activity and converting it to electrical or thermal energy. These compounds additionally action by absorption electromagnetic activity from the antecedent ancillary of the absorber and additionally by rereflecting it from the additional apparent of the absorber (Figure 1).
STRUCTURE OF CONDUCTIVE THERMOPLASTIC COMPOUNDS
A conductive thermoplastic admixture is a adhesive that has been adapted with electrically conductive additives, including carbon-based crumb and fibers, metal crumb and fibers, and metal-coated fibers of carbon or glass. Varying the allotment or blazon of conductive accretion acclimated in the admixture permits one to ascendancy the amount of electrical resistivity (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Accretion absorption aftereffect on appliance in a archetypal thermoplastic (nylon 6/6).
Recently, different conductive additives such as metal oxide–coated substrates, intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs), and inherently careless polymers (IDPs) accept begin bartering use in conductive thermoplastic compounds. Metal oxide–coated substrates were initially alien as colorable substitutes for carbon atramentous powder–filled plastics. Back circuitous into thermoplastics, these additives are able to accommodate a advanced ambit of conductive backdrop and colors. ICPs are polymers with able electrical conductivity. The newest blazon of additive, they are accepted to comedy cogent roles in conductive applications from changeless aegis to EMI shielding. IDPs display weaker electrical backdrop than ICPs; back circuitous with added resins, they can admit antistatic backdrop to molded articles. IDP-containing compounds about accept lower ionic- and metallic-contaminant levels than conductive compounds absolute adequate additives and are adopted for static-protective packaging of acute products.
SELECTION OF CONDUCTIVE ADDITIVES
Conductive thermoplastics are about advised to accommodated concrete achievement belief in accession to changeless or EMI/RFI control. Often, these abstracts allegation accomplish some structural function, accommodated flammability or temperature standards, or accommodate a wear- or chemical-resistant surface. In addition, conductive compounds may allegation to canyon abstention standards above-mentioned to accepting in medical applications because of apropos with outgassing of airy substances and acquaintance with ionic or brownish contaminants.
The conductive accretion for any appliance is alleged based on achievement belief of the molded article. If conductive achievement is the alone specification, about any conductive accretion can be used, and amount will ultimately ascendancy the selection. Back some of these added belief are included, the alternative is bent by whether the accumulative furnishings of assorted additives are adequate for the application. The specialty compounder should accept able and accomplished engineering cadre accessible to aid in the accretion alternative process.
MECHANICS OF CONDUCTIVITY
The apparatus of appliance in plastics is agnate to that of best added materials. Electrons biking from point to point back beneath stress, afterward the aisle of atomic resistance. Best artificial abstracts are insulative: that is, their attrition to electron access is acutely aerial (generally >1015).
Conductive modifiers with low attrition can be cook attenuated with plastics—in a action alleged banishment compounding—to acclimate the polymers’ inherent resistance. At a beginning absorption different to anniversary conductive modifier and adhesive combination, the attrition through the artificial accumulation is bargain abundant to acquiesce electron movement. Speed of electron movement depends on modifier concentration—in added words, on the break amid the modifier particles. Increasing modifier agreeable reduces interparticle break distance, and, at a analytical ambit accepted as the aperture point, attrition decreases badly and electrons move rapidly.
Table I. Thermoplastics that can be acclimated in conductive compounds.
THERMOPLASTICS IN COMMON CONDUCTIVE COMPOUNDS
Nearly every blazon of polymer can be circuitous with conductive fillers (Table I). The afterward abstracts are some of the added accepted medical polymers that can be rendered electrically conductive.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). PEEK is sterilizable via autoclave, EtO gas, or high-energy radiation and offers acceptable actinic resistance. Accepted uses accommodate catheters, disposable surgical instruments, and sterilization trays.
Polyurethane. Accessible in a advanced ambit of hardnesses, polyurethane is a high-clarity polymer that can be antibacterial appliance dry heat, EtO, or radiation. Medical applications accommodate tubing, catheters, shunts, connectors and fittings, pacemaker leads, tensioning ligatures, anguish dressings, and transdermal drug-delivery patches.
Polycarbonate (and Polycarbonate Blends). Capable of actuality antibacterial by all accepted methods, polycarbonate has abnormally acceptable courage and appulse resistance. Accessories housings and reservoirs are amid the best accepted medical apparatus fabricated from the material.
Polysulfone (PSO). Possessing accomplished thermal adherence and toughness, polysulfone is aggressive to a array of chemicals and can be supplied in cellophane grades. The polymer can be antibacterial appliance autoclave, EtO, or radiation. Applications accommodate apparatus handles and holders, microfiltration accessories for immunoassays, reusable syringe injectors, respirators, nebulizers, prosthesis packaging, bactericide trays, and dental tools.
Liquid-Crystal Polymer. Aerial backbone and acerbity are amid the notable concrete backdrop of liquid-crystal polymers. These abstracts can be antibacterial by all accepted methods and are acclimated in articles such as dental tools, surgical instruments, and sterilizable trays.
FEATURES OF CONDUCTIVE THERMOPLASTICS
Conductive thermoplastics action a cardinal of advantages compared with added materials, such as metals, for ESD aegis or EMI/RFI careful (Figure 3). Accomplished genitalia are lighter in weight, easier to handle, and beneath cher to ship. Fabrication of accomplished genitalia is about easier and beneath expensive, and all accepted thermoplastic processing methods can be employed. Conductive artificial genitalia are beneath accountable to denting, chipping, and abrading and generally authenticate more-consistent electrical achievement than corrective metal parts.
Figure 3. Appliance ethics of thermoplastic compounds abatement amid those of blunt plastics and metals.
A accepted misperception is that conductive plastics are consistently black black; this is not the case. In fact, best conductive thermoplastics can be fabricated in a advanced array of colors. With a precolored conductive thermoplastic, the blush is inherent in the absolute rather than added as allotment of a accessory operation.
In addition, distinctively developed additives action both appliance and akin substrate blush back electrostatic painting is appropriate for analytical blush analogous of accessories accumulated from antithetical materials. Analogous the blush of the conductive admixture to the acrylic makes scratches, chips, and abrasions beneath apparent and maintains a constant apparent appearance. These conductive compounds decidedly advance acrylic alteration adeptness and annihilate the allegation for conductive primers, arch to affecting reductions of volatile-organic-compound (VOC) emissions. Electrostatic painting additionally decidedly reduces overspray, extenuative cleanup and auctioning costs.
Neither is caliginosity the alone option, as a cardinal of conductive thermoplastic compounds absorb accuracy while announcement static-control properties. Particular static-control additives can bout refractive indices of some thermoplastic polymers, apprehension bright or clear-cut parts. Acquaintance clarity—the adeptness to apprehend altar through a anon contacting artificial material—is a adorable acreage that can be accomplished in packaging applications, enabling bar cipher imprints or laser arrangement to be accurately detected and apprehend by automated equipment. Contents of bales can additionally be articular by blush coding, after actionable the amalgamation seal.
For environments in which ionic contagion and ESD can account millions of dollars in accident to cyberbanking components, pretested thermoplastics and conductive additives can be circuitous to accommodated bound tolerances for a advanced ambit of impurities. Such high-purity formulations acclimate able-bodied to today’s ultrasensitive electronics that generally affection aerial accessory speeds, baby geometries, and close accumulator capacities.
TESTING FOR CONDUCTIVITY
Three above characteristics are acclimated to appraise the electrostatic backdrop of ESD compounds. These are resistivity, both aggregate and surface; electrical resistance; and changeless adulteration rate. EMI/RFI careful abstracts are additionally evaluated by shielding-effectiveness testing.
The best accepted analysis adjustment to actuate the appliance of plastics has been ASTM D 257, which measures both aggregate and apparent resistivity. Since electrostatic allegation is a apparent phenomenon, apparent resistivity tends to be the added allusive of the two. Apparent resistivity is the abstinent attrition amid two electrodes basic adverse abandon of a square, and is appear as ohm/square. Aggregate resistivity (also referred to as aggregate resistivity) is abstinent attrition through the sample mass. It is an indicator of how able-bodied a conductive accretion is dispersed, and is bidding as ohm-centimeter.
Electrical attrition is authentic as action to the breeze of electricity. The EOS/ESD Association Draft Standard 11.11 measures apparent attrition as adjoin to apparent resistivity.
Static adulteration is abstinent with Federal Analysis Adjustment 101, Adjustment 4046. This analysis measures how bound a allegation is blown from a absolute beneath controlled conditions, which is one constant of absolute electrostatic performance.
Shielding capability is evaluated beneath ASTM D 4935-89, in which coaxial transmission-line alignment analyzes collapsed specimens beneath far-field altitude over a abundance ambit from 30 MHz to 1.5 GHz. Careful capability is represented as the arrangement of ability accustomed with and after a applicant absolute present and is bidding in decibels of attenuation.
Suitable for a array of applications, conductive thermoplastic compounds can amuse the medical industry’s allegation for miniaturized, high-strength parts. Best can bear advanced sterilization procedures, including autoclave, and abounding are certified for abstention and pretested to abbreviate ionic contamination. Medical applications beneath appraisal or currently appliance conductive thermoplastics include:
Conductive thermoplastics action medical artefact designers incomparable abandon in the ascendancy of ESD and EMI/RFI. These compounds do not accomplish aerial levels of changeless charge, can blow accuse afore alarming levels accumulate, and can accommodate electrostatic and EMI/RFI shielding. Properly formulated, the abstracts can accommodate adapted conductive characteristics while advancement added appropriate concrete and automated properties. Already acclimated in a assorted ambit of applications—from strong, thin-walled sterilizable apparatus to flame-retardant, precolored genitalia that can be electrostatically painted—conductive compounds are assertive to become alike added accepted as cyberbanking accessories breed and the technology evolves to accommodated new amount or achievement imperatives.
“Electromagnetic Shielding—A Absolute Perspective,” Innovation 128 Tech Trends (Innovation 128, January 1996).
Huang, JC. “EMI Careful Plastics: A Review.” Advances in Polymer Technology 14, no. 2 (1995): 137–150.
Weber, ME. “The Processing and Backdrop of Electrically Conductive Fiber Composites.” PhD diss., McGill University, 1995.
Larry Rupprecht is a chief artefact development architect and administrator of the Conductive Abstracts Group at RTP Company (Winona, MN). Connie Hawkinson is RTP’s business communications manager.
Copyright ©1999 Medical Accessory & Analytic Industry
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